Zitholid Tablets

COMPOSITION

ZITHOLID – 250

Azithromycin                           250 mg

ZITHOLID500

Azithromycin                          500 mg

 

Introduction

Zitholid  tablet contains azithromycin is an azalide which belongs to subclass of macrolide antibiotic. It is derived from erythromycin. Methyl-substitution at the nitrogen atom incorporated to the lactone ring, thus making the lactone ring 15-membered. It has wide spectrum and is more active against bacterial infections than erythromycin. Its increased use over other antibiotic is due to decreased elimination from the body. This effect causes increased action towards bacteria for longer period of time with single dose of administration. This drug can be used alone or in combination with other antibiotics for increased spectrum of treatment.

 

Indication

  • Used for drug resistant bacteria
  • Mild to moderate infections caused by susceptible infections
  • Mycobacterial infections
  • In combination with ethambutol, it is used for the treatment of disseminated Mycobacterial avium complex infections.

 

Dosage

500 mg once daily for three days

 

Mechanism of action

Azithromycin is a semi-synthetic antibiotic which is effective against many bacterial infections. It ceases the protein synthesis required for bacterial growth. It produces this action by binding to 50S subunit of micro-organism. It does not interfere with human protein synthesis and does not affect nucleic acid synthesis.

 

 

Pharmacology

Absorption

The drug is well distributed into the body with oral administration. The absorption of the drug is not affected by food. The concentration maximum of the drug is 46% with the administration of food.

Distribution

The drug binding to serum protein is variable in concentration i.e about 51% at 0.02mcg/ml to 7% at 2mcg/ml. The action of azithromycin is pH related, the antibacterial activity is reduced with acidic pH. It is widely distributed into the tissue in human.

Excretion

The drug is excreted in unchanged form through biliary excretion. 6% of the drug in unchanged form is excreted in urine.

 

Contraindications

  • Patients with hypersensitivity to other antibiotics such as erythromycin or  macrolide drug.
  • Patients with the history of hepatic dysfunction.

 

 

Precautions

  • It should be only used when the infection is severe and caused by susceptible bacteria
  • Not used in patients with abnormal renal functions
  • Not used in patients with prolonged cardiac repolarization or long QT interval
  • Drug resistance can occur if not used in any susceptible organism
  • Prolong use can cause infections in pregnant patients
  • The drug can transfer into breast milk in nursing mothers